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Master List of Kava Research Articles

Master List of Kava Research Articles

Best Fiji Kava on Apr 19th 2021

Here it is, kava lovers, the main list of all research on kava and kava related topics. This information is where all of the "Facts of the Day" originate. If you've found any other articles, please post them here and I will keep our list updated.



Volgin A, Yang L, Amstislavskaya T, Demin K, Wang D, Yan D, Wang J, Wang M, Alpyshov E, Hu G, Serikuly N, Shevyrin V, Wappler-Guzzetta E, de Abreu M, Kalueff A. DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Kava. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Jan 21. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00587. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 31904216.
(https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00587)

Teschke R. Kava hepatotoxicity--a clinical review. Ann Hepatol. 2010 Jul-Sep;9(3):251-65. PMID: 20720265.
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20720265/)

Sarris J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review. Phytother Res. 2018 Jul;32(7):1147-1162. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6055. Epub 2018 Mar 25. PMID: 29575228.
(https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6055)

Danan G, Teschke R. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Dec 24;17(1):14. doi: 10.3390/ijms17010014. PMID: 26712744; PMCID: PMC4730261.
(https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010014)

Ernst E. A re-evaluation of kava (Piper methysticum). Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;64(4):415-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02932.x. Epub 2007 Jun 6. PMID: 17555466; PMCID: PMC2048557.
(https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02932.x)

White CM. The Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Adverse Events Associated With Kava. J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;58(11):1396-1405. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1263. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29791008.
(https://doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1263)

Sarris J, Teschke R, Stough C, Scholey A, Schweitzer I. Re-introduction of kava (Piper methysticum) to the EU: is there a way forward? Planta Med. 2011 Jan;77(2):107-10. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1250290. Epub 2010 Sep 2. PMID: 20814850.
(https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250290)

PHAMA. (2018). FIJI KAVA VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS.
(https://phama.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Fiji-Kava-Value-Chain-Analysis-Report-FINAL.pdf)

Kuchta K, Schmidt M, Nahrstedt A. German Kava Ban Lifted by Court: The Alleged Hepatotoxicity of Kava (Piper methysticum) as a Case of Ill-Defined Herbal Drug Identity, Lacking Quality Control, and Misguided Regulatory Politics. Planta Med. 2015 Dec;81(18):1647-53. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1558295. Epub 2015 Dec 22. PMID: 26695707.
(https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1558295)

Rychetnik L, Madronio CM. The health and social effects of drinking water-based infusions of kava: a review of the evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011 Jan;30(1):74-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00184.x. PMID: 21219501.
(https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00184.x)

Foo H, Lemon J. Acute effects of kava, alone or in combination with alcohol, on subjective measures of impairment and intoxication and on cognitive performance. Drug Alcohol Rev. 1997 Jun;16(2):147-55. doi: 10.1080/09595239700186441. PMID: 16203421.
(https://doi.org/10.1080/09595239700186441)

Singh YN. Potential for interaction of kava and St. John's wort with drugs. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Aug 22;100(1-2):108-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.014. PMID: 16005588.
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.014)

Clough AR, Jacups SP, Wang Z, Burns CB, Bailie RS, Cairney SJ, Collie A, Guyula T, McDonald SP, Currie BJ. Health effects of kava use in an eastern Arnhem Land Aboriginal community. Intern Med J. 2003 Aug;33(8):336-40. doi: 10.1046/j.1444-0903.2003.00405.x. PMID: 12895162.
(https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1444-0903.2003.00405.x)

LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug- Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Kava Kava.
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/n/livertox/KavaKava/)

Republic of Vanuatu, Kava Act No 7 of 2002
(https://biosecurity.gov.vu/images/Export/kava-act-2002.pdf)

Waldeni, J., VON WEGERERl, J., Winterz, U., BERGERl, M., & Grunze, H. (1997). Effects of kawain and dihydromethysticin on field potential changes in the hippocampus. In Elsevler Science Inc. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. & Biol. Psychiat (Vol. 21).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/s0278-5846(97)00042-0)

Fu, D., & Ramzan, I. (2015). Use of kava as a phytotherapeutic agent and kava‐related hepatotoxicity.
(https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781119006039.ch13)

Aporosa, S. G. (2006). Yaqona and Education in Fiji: A Clash of Cultures?
(https://www.academia.edu/1134788/Yaqona_kava_Education_and_Development_in_Fiji)

Connor, K., Davidson, J., & Connor, K. M. (2002). A placebo-controlled study of Kava kava in generalized anxiety disorder.
(https://doi.org/10.1097/00004850-200207000-00005)

Kubatova, A., Miller, D. J., & Hawthorne, S. B. (2001). Comparison of subcritical water and organic solvents for extracting kava lactones from kava root. In Journal of Chromatography A.
(https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)00979-7)

Teschke, R., Qiu, S. X., & Lebot, V. (2011). Herbal hepatotoxicity by kava: Update on pipermethystine, flavokavain B, and mould hepatotoxins as primarily assumed culprits. In Digestive and Liver Disease (Vol. 43, Issue 9, pp. 676–681). (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2011.01.018)

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2004). KAVA A Human Health Risk Assessment. (http://www.foodstandards.gov.au)
(https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/documents/30_Kava1.pdf)

Tabudravu, J. N., & Jaspars, M. (2005). Anticancer activities of constituents of kava (Piper methysticum).
(https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SP05005)

De Leo, V., La Marca, A., Morgante, G., Lanzetta, D., Florio, P., & Petraglia, F. (2001). Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. In Maturitas (Vol. 39). (www.elsevier.com/locate/maturitas)

Ramzan, I., Rowe, A., & Zhang, L. Y. (2011). Toxicokinetics of kava. In Advances in Pharmacological Sciences (Vol. 2011). (https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/326724)

Lopez-Avila, V., & Benedicto, J. (1997). Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Kava Lactones from Piper methysticum (Kava) Herb.
(https://doi.org/10.1002/jhrc.1240201007)

Balick, M. J., & Lee, R. A. (2009). The Sacred Root. In Ethnobotany of Pohnpei.
(https://doi.org/10.1515/9780824837495-008)

Anke, J., & Ramzan, I. (2004). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with Kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f.). In Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Vol. 93, Issues 2–3, pp. 153–160).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.04.009)

Schmidt, N., & Ferger, B. (2001). Neuroprotective Effects of ()-Kavain in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease.
(https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-2396(200104)40:1<47::aid-syn1025>3.0.co;2-s)

Tanaka, A., Hamada, N., Fujita, Y., Itoh, T., Nozawa, Y., Iinuma, M. & Ito, M. A novel kavalactone derivative protects against H2O2-induced PC12 cell death via Nrf2/ARE activation. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 18, 3133-3139 (2010).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20371185/)

Boerner, J. R. & Klement, S. Attenuation of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 154, 508-510 (2004).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15638068/)

Cairney, S., Maruff, P. & Clough, A. R. The neurobehavioural effects of kava. , (2002).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12225450)

Lindstrom, L., Kava Pirates in Vanuatu?. International Journal of Cultural Property 16, 291-308 (2009).
(https://doi.org/10.1017/S0940739109990208)

Jayararnan, T. K., BUILDING ECONOMIC RESILIENCE : THE CASE OF VANUATU. Economic Vulnerability and Resilience of Small States. , 135-148 (2004).
(https://www.semanticscholar.org/pap...aman/3b67e7bdff8f68b4a1582f0758d9550465ddc029)

Ben Dhaou, S. I. & Rohman, I. K. Everything and its opposite. 80, 631-639 (2018).
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/30052773)

Yuan CS, Dey L, Wang A, Mehendale S, Xie JT, Aung HH, Ang-Lee MK. Kavalactones and dihydrokavain modulate GABAergic activity in a rat gastric-brainstem preparation. Planta Med. 2002 Dec;68(12):1092-6. doi: 10.1055/s-2002-36338. PMID: 12494336.
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12494336/)

Cox, P. A. & O'Rourke, L. Kava (Piper methysticum, Piperaceae). Economic Botany 41, 452-454 (1987).
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/4254999)

Long, D. D., Urs, S., Karin Berger Bueter, Bernd Bueter, Kenneth Lundstrom, & Willi Schaffner. (2001). Interaction of Various Piper methysticum Cultivars with CNS Receptors in vitro. Planta Med, 67(4), 306–311.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-14334

Kawa-pyrone, A. W., I + 13,8. , (1965).

Martin, H., McCallum, M., Stofer, D. W. & Eichinger, M. R. Kavain attenuates vascular contractility through inhibition of calcium channels. Planta Med 68, 784-789 (2002).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12357387/)

Kuchta, K., Hladikova, M., Thomsen, M., Nahrstedt, A. & Schmidt, M. Kava (Piper methysticum) Extract for the Treatment of Nervous Anxiety, Tension and Restlessness. Drug Res (Stuttg) 71, 83-93 (2021).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33207379/)

Guiart, J., JOHN FRUM MOVEMENT IN TANNA. Oceania 22, 165-177 (1952).
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/40328340)

Klohs, W., Keller, F., Williar, R. E., Toekes, M. I. & Cronheim, G. E. A Chemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Piper Methysticum Forst. J. Med. Chem. 1, 95-103 (1959).
(https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm50002a007/)

Norton, S. A., Kava dermopathy. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 31, 89-97 (1994).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8021378/)

Schmitz, D., Zhang, C., Chatterjee, S., Heinemaun, U., {Chatterjee Abteilung Pharmakologie Fa Schwabe}, S. W. & Heinemann, U. Effects of methysticin on three different models of seizure like events studied in rat hippocampal and entorhinal cortex slices. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 351, 348-355 (1995).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7630425/)

Aporosa, S. A., Yaqona ( Kava ) As a Symbol of Cultural Identity. , 79-101 (2012).
(https://www.semanticscholar.org/pap...rosa/70058a9269f3a52aa8d09b9f4dca400fe4267f7e)

Whitton, A. P., Response to Schmidt "Are Kavalactones the Hepatotoxic Principle of Kava Extracts? The Pitfalls of the Glutathione Theory. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 9, 187-188 (2003).
(https://doi.org/10.1089/10755530360623293 )

Munte, T., Heinze, H., Matzke, M. & Steiz, J. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition task. Neuropsychobiology 27, 46-53 (1993).
(https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/118952)

Apo' Aporosa}, S. '., The new kava user: Diasporic identity formation in reverse. New Zealand Sociology 30, 58-77 (2015).
(https://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/12796)

Aporosa, S. A., Kava and Ethno-cultural Identity in Oceania. The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity , 1-15 (2019).
(https://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/12377)

Aporosa, S. A., Atkins, M. & Leov, J. N. Decolonising quantitative methods within a Pacific research space to explore cognitive effects following kava use. Pacific Dynamics 5, 2021 (2021).
(https://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/14153)

'Apo', A. S., Is Kava Alcohol?: The Myths and the Facts. Pacific Health Dialog 17, 157-164 (2011).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23008981/)

Aporosa, S. & Tomlinson, M. Kava hangover and gold-standard science. Anthropologica 56, 163-175 (2014).
(https://www.jstor.org/stable/24469648)

Mathews, J. M., Etheridge, A. S., Valentine, J. L., Black, S. R., Coleman, D. P., Patel, P., So, J. & Burka, L. T. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of the kavalactone kawain: Interaction with kava extract and kavalactones in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 33, 1555-1563 (2005).
(https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.105.004317)

Lebot, V., Aradhya, M. & Manshardt, R. Geographic Survey of Genetic Variation in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f.and P. wichmannii C. DC.). Pacific Science 45, 169-185 (1991).
(https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/518/1/v45n2-169-185.pdf)

Boerner, R. J., Kava kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia and specific social phobia. Phytotherapy Research 15, 646-647 (2001).
(https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1006)

McDonald, D. & Jowitt, A. Kava in the Pacific Islands: A contemporary drug of abuse?. Drug and Alcohol Review 19, 217-227 (2000).
(https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713659319)

Vandenbroucke, H., Mournet, P., Malapa, R., Glaszmann, J. C., Chair, H. & Lebot, V. Comparative analysis of genetic variation in kava (Piper methysticum) assessed by SSR and DArT reveals zygotic foundation and clonal diversification. Genome 58, 1-11 (2015).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25973616/)

Krum, B. N., Molz de Freitas, C., Chiapinotto Ceretta, A. P., Barbosa, C. P., de Moraes Reis, E., Scussel, R., da Silva Córneo, E., Machado-de-Ávila, R. A., Boligon, A. A., & Fachinetto, R. (2020). Kava decreases the stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamine in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 265(July 2020).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113293)

Luxminarayan, L., Neha, S., Amit, V. & Khinchi, M. A Research Article on Antistress Activity of Herbal Extract Oil of Piper Methysticum on Wistar Albino. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 5, 1-8 (2017).
(https://ajprd.com/index.php/journal/article/view/892)

Boonen1, G., Ferger2, B., Kuschinsky2, K., & Häberleinl, H. (1998). In vivo Effects of the Kavapyrones (+)- dihydromethysticin and (±)-Kavain on Dopamine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Serotonin and 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels in Striatal and Cortical Brain Regions. 4.Watkins, L. L., Connor, K. M. & Davidson, J. R. Effect of kava extract on vagal cardiac control in generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary findings. Journal of Psychopharmacology 15, 283-286 (2001).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9741294/)

Narayanapillai, S. C., Leitzman, P., O'Sullivan, M. G. & Xing, C. Flavokawains A and B in kava, not dihydromethysticin, potentiate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 27, 1871-1876 (2014).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25185080/)

Food,, Nations, A. O. o. t. U. & Organization, W. H. Kava: a review of the safety of traditional and recreational beverage consumption. World Health Organization , 1-47 (2016).
(http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/1b72914b-8ac8-428f-8fc9-40f1fb4e6f3a/)

Lehrl, S., Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders: Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 78, 101-110 (2004).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14706720/)

Chaurasiya, N. D., León, F., Ding, Y., Gómez-Betancur, I., Benjumea, D., Walker, L. A., Cutler, S. J., & Tekwani, B. L. (2017). Interactions of Desmethoxyyangonin, a Secondary Metabolite from Renealmia alpinia, with Human Monoamine Oxidase-A and Oxidase-B. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017.
(https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4018724)

Whitton, P. A., Lau, A., Salisbury, A., Whitehouse, J. & Evans, C. S. Kava lactones and the kava-kava controversy. Phytochemistry 64, 673-679 (2003).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13679089/)

Abu, N., Mohamed, N. E., Yeap, S. K., Lim, K. L., Akhtar, M. N., Zulfadli, A. J., Kee, B. B., Abdullah, M. P., Omar, A. R. & Alitheen, N. B. In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice. Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9, 1401-1417 (2015).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25834398/)

Martin, A. C., Johnston, E., Xing, C. & Hegeman, A. D. Measuring the chemical and cytotoxic variability of commercially available kava (Piper methysticum G. Forster). PLoS One 9, (2014).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25365244/)

Jaiswal, Y. S., Yerke, A. M., Bagley, M. C., Ekelöf, M., Weber, D., Haddad, D., Fodor, A., Muddiman, D. C., & Williams, L. L. (2020). 3D Imaging and metabolomic profiling reveal higher neuroactive kavalactone contents in lateral roots and crown root peels of Piper methysticum (kava). GigaScience, 9(9), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa096 Clouatre, D. L., Kava kava: Examining new reports of toxicity. Toxicol. Lett. 150, 85-96 (2004).
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507772/)

Lebot, V., Do, T. K. & Legendre, L. Detection of flavokavins (A, B, C) in cultivars of kava (Piper methysticum) using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Food Chem. 151, 554-560 (2014).
(https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24423570/)

Sarris, J., Laporte, E. & Schweitzer, I. Kava: A comprehensive review of efficacy, safety, and psychopharmacology. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 45, 27-35 (2011).
(https://doi.org/10.3109/00048674.2010.522554)

Vandenbroucke, H., Mournet, P., Malapa, R., Glaszmann, J. C., Chair, H. & Lebot, V. Colorimetric assessment of kava (Piper methysticum Forst) quality. Genome 58, 1-11 (2015).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.02.005)

Lebot, V. & Levesque, J. Genetic control of kavalactone chemotypes in Piper methysticum cultivars. Phytochemistry 43, 397-403 (1996).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(96)00209-9)

Connor, K. M., Davidson, J. R. & Churchill, L. E. Adverse-effect profile of kava. CNS Spectrums 6, 848-853 (2001).
(https://doi.org/10.1017/s109285290000167x)

Christl, S. U., Seifert, A. & Seeler, D. Toxic hepatitis after consumption of traditional kava preparation. Journal of Travel Medicine 16, 55-56 (2009).
(https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00259.x)
(https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/16/1/55/1803384)

Puppala, M., Narayanapillai, S. C., Leitzman, P., Sun, H., Upadhyaya, P., O'Sullivan, M. G., Hecht, S. S. & Xing, C. Pilot in Vivo Structure-Activity Relationship of Dihydromethysticin in Blocking 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-Induced O6-Methylguanine and Lung Tumor in A/J Mice. J. Med. Chem. 60, 7935-7940 (2017).
(https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00921)
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/28806079/)

Teschke, R., Schwarzenboeck, A. & Hennermann, K. H. Kava hepatotoxicity: A clinical survey and critical analysis of 26 suspected cases. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 20, 1182-1193 (2008).
(https://doi.org/10.1097/meg.0b013e3283036768)

Sharma, A., Anchariya, R. & Dubey, C. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development A Review on Anti-Stress Activity of Piper Methysticum. A Review on Anti-Stress Activity of Piper Methysticum, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 8, 130-136 (2020).
(https://doi.org/10.22270/ajprd.v8i4.688)

H.-P. Volz, M. K., Kava-kava Extract WS 1490 versus Placebo in Anxiety Disorders-A Randomized Placebo-controlled 25-week Outpatient Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 30, 1-5 (1997).
(https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-979474)

Jaiswal, Y., Shaikh, M. F., Wang, I., Yong, Y., Lee, V. L. L. & Williams, L. Evaluation of anti-convulsive properties of aqueous kava extract on zebrafish using the ptz-induced seizure model. Brain Sciences 10, 1-11 (2020).
(https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080541)
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/32796575/)

Lebot, V. & Legendre, L. Comparison of kava (Piper methysticum Forst.) varieties by UV absorbance of acetonic extracts and high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 48, 25-33 (2016).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2016.01.009)

Stickel, F., Baumüller, H. M., Seitz, K., Vasilakis, D., Seitz, G., Seitz, H. K., & Schuppan, D. (2003). Hepatitis induced by Kava (Piper methysticum rhizoma). Journal of Hepatology, 39(1), 62–67.
(https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8278(03)00175-2)

Tang, Y., Li, X., Liu, Z., Simoneau, A. R., Xie, J. & Zi, X. Flavokawain B, a kava chalcone, induces apoptosis via up-regulation of death-receptor 5 and Bim expression in androgen receptor negative, hormonal refractory prostate cancer cell lines and reduces tumor growth. Int. J. Cancer 127, 1758-1768 (2010).
(https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25210)
(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/20112340/)

Davies, L. P., Drew, C. A., Duftield, P., {R Johnston}, G. A. & Jamieson, D. D. Kava Pyrones and Resin: Studies on GABAA, GABAB and Benzodiazepine Binding Sites in Rodent Brain. Pharmacology & Toxicology 71, 120-126 (1992).
(https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1992.tb00530.x)

Lüde, S., Török, M., Dieterle, S., Jäggi, R., Büter, K. B., & Krähenbühl, S. (2008). Hepatocellular toxicity of kava leaf and root extracts. Phytomedicine, 15(1–2), 120–131.
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.11.003)

Zi, X. & Simoneau, A. R. Flavokawain A, a novel chalcone from kava extract, induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by involvement of Bax protein-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway and tumor growth in mice. Cancer Res. 65, 3479-3486 (2005).
(https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-3803)
(https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/8/3479.long)

Mohanty, M., Fiji Kava: production, trade, role and challenges. The Journal of Pacific Studies 37, 5-30 (2017).
(http://repository.usp.ac.fj/11179/1/Fiji_Kava.pdf)

Lhuissier, T., Mercier, P. E., Michalet, S., Lebot, V. & Legendre, L. Colorimetric assessment of kava (Piper methysticum Forst.) quality. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 59, 27-34 (2017).
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.02.005)

Teschke, R., Sarris, J., Glass, X. & Schulze, J. Kava, the anxiolytic herb: Back to basics to prevent liver injury?. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 71, 445-448 (2011).
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